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Water

Water can exist in the three common states of matter: solid (ice), liquid, and gas (steam).

Water is the only substance that can exist in all three states of matter within the range of temperatures found on Earth.

Water can also exist in a fourth state of matter called a “spin ice,” where the water molecules are arranged in a crystalline lattice.

Water is the most common substance on Earth, covering about 71% of the planet’s surface.

A single drop of water contains billions of water molecules.

Water has a high surface tension, which allows certain insects like water striders to walk on it.

Pure water is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, however it is said that cats can taste pure water.

The maximum density of water occurs at 4°C, which means that ice floats on water.

Water is the only substance that expands when it freezes.

The human body is about 60% water. An average person contains ten gallons (38 liters) of water.

Water can absorb more heat than many other substances, which makes it a good coolant.

Water is used in many industrial processes, such as power generation, manufacturing, and agriculture.

To grow the wheat for a single loaf of bread requires two tons of water (1,496 gallons or 5,663 liters) are needed.

The blood of mammals has the same dilution of salt as ocean water.

A person can survive for about a month without food, but only about a week without water.

The world’s largest waterfall is Angel Falls in Venezuela, which drops water from a height of 979 meters (3,212 feet – more than 1/2-mile).

The average American uses about 80-100 gallons (302 to 378 liters) of water per day.

Water is a polar molecule, which means it has a positive end and a negative end. They say water molecules are shipped like Mickey Mouse, with a round head, the oxygen, and two ears, the hydrogen atoms at a 104.5-degree angle to each other.

Microwave ovens take advantage of the shape of water molecules. At a 2.4 gigahertz (2.4 billion times per second) they reverse an electrical field. The water molecules try to align one way, then the other. All this movement creates heat. Since plastic, porcelain and many other materials do not have polar molecules, they do not heat up in the presence of an alternating field.

Water can be split into its constituent elements, hydrogen and oxygen, through a process called electrolysis. Electrolysis is done with direct current electricity. If you put electrodes in water, bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen will form around those electrodes. Engines can be powered by recombining hydrogen with oxygen, but so far, the process of electrolysis uses more energy than can be retrieved.

Water is essential for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy.

Scientists specializing in exobiology generally assume that lifeforms will require water, so life will probably not be found on a dry planet.

Sea water contains approximately 34 parts per thousand of salt.

The water cycle is the continuous movement of water between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere.

Water can be used to extinguish fires because it can absorb heat quickly and effectively.

Water can have a memory, according to a controversial theory called “water memory” proposed by French scientist Jacques Benveniste.

You can be cold when wet because water transfers heat from your body to the air more quickly than dry skin.

Water can form up to 15 different phases, including a liquid crystal phase.

Water has been found to have a surprisingly high surface tension in microgravity environments, which can affect the behavior of fluids in space.

The human body can sense the difference between hot and cold water much more accurately than it can sense differences in temperature for other substances such as steel, plastic and wood.

Water can conduct electricity even in the absence of dissolved ions, due to a phenomenon called “protonic conduction.”

Water has been found to exhibit strange quantum properties, such as “quantum tunneling” and “quantum entanglement.”

Water can be supercooled to extremely low temperatures without freezing, and can even exist as a liquid at temperatures as low as -40°C. Something needs to trigger formation of crystals (ice). Without that, water cannot freeze.

Water can be used to create “snowcrete,” a building material made from a mixture of snow and concrete.

Water can form a “chain” of hydrogen bonds that can stretch across large distances, allowing it to transport energy and information.

Water can be used to create a type of glass called “water glass,” which is made by melting silica in a solution of sodium carbonate and water.

Water can act as a natural lens, bending and distorting light to create mirages and other optical illusions.

Water can form a “bridge” between two surfaces, allowing them to stick together without the need for glue or other adhesives. If you’ve ever put a cover slip on a microscope slide, you’ve witnessed the effect.

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Illinois

Illinois is the largest producer of pumpkins in the United States.

In Mount Pulaski, Illinois, it is illegal for boys to hurl snowballs at trees.

The world’s largest bottle of catsup (ketchup) was made in Collinsville, Illinois.

The city of Metropolis, Illinois, is the official home of Superman.

In Evanston, Illinois, it is illegal to change clothes in an automobile with the curtains drawn, unless the car is parked in a garage.

The world’s first skyscraper, the Home Insurance Building, was built in Chicago in 1885.

Illinois has more units of government than any other state in the United States.

The world’s first McDonald’s restaurant opened in Des Plaines, Illinois.

In the town of Casey, Illinois, there are eight giant objects including a rocking chair, a wind chime, and a pitchfork.

The Chicago River is the only river in the world that flows backward.

The Chicago Water Tower is one of the few buildings to survive the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.

The Willis Tower in Chicago was once the tallest building in the world.

The oldest continually running hotel in the United States is the Beall Mansion in Alton, Illinois.

The Illinois state motto is “State Sovereignty, National Union.”

Illinois is the birthplace of former U.S. Presidents Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and Barack Obama.

The first public zoo in the United States opened in Lincoln Park, Chicago.

The official state dance of Illinois is the square dance.

The world’s largest collection of books is located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

The city of Moline, Illinois, is home to the John Deere Pavilion, a museum dedicated to farming equipment.

The Chicago Cubs baseball team has not won a World Series since 1908.

The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield, Illinois, has a collection of over 12 million items.

The world’s largest collection of pencils is located in Hinsdale, Illinois.

The world’s largest rubber band ball is located in Lauderhill, Illinois.

In Evanston, Illinois, it is illegal to throw snowballs at someone’s property.

The town of Normal, Illinois, was named after the Illinois State Normal University, which trained teachers.

In Willowbrook, Illinois, it is illegal to disturb “any congregation or assembly of persons met for religious worship.”

In Galesburg, Illinois, it is illegal to burn bird feathers in public.

The town of Henry, Illinois, has a statue of a two-headed calf.

In University Park, Illinois, it is illegal to gamble.

In Illinois, it is illegal to hunt whales.

In Chicago, it is illegal to fish while sitting on a giraffe’s neck.

The Illinois state snack is popcorn.

The town of Ashmore, Illinois, has a museum dedicated to brooms.

In Peoria, Illinois, it is illegal to give a lighted cigar to a pet.

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Idaho

Idaho is the only state that is not bordered by any ocean, gulf, or bay.

In Idaho, it’s illegal to fish while riding a camel.

The largest potato ever grown was in Idaho in 2011, weighing in at over 11 pounds (5kg).

The town of Atomic City, Idaho was used in the 1950s as a testing ground for nuclear weapons.

Idaho has the highest percentage of Basque Americans of any state in the country.

Idaho is home to the deepest gorge in the United States, Hells Canyon, which is over 7,900 feet (1.5 miles or 2.4 kilometers) deep. That’s deeper than the Grand Canyon.

Idaho has more hot springs than any other state in the country.

The first ski resort in the United States was opened in Sun Valley, Idaho.

Idaho produces more trout than any other state in the country.

The largest free-standing log structure in the world, the University of Idaho’s Administration Building, is located in Moscow, Idaho.

Idaho is home to the largest man-made geyser in the world, which erupts every hour on the hour.

Idaho is the only state where you can legally hunt a Sharptail Grouse from a moving vehicle.

The tallest sand dune in North America, Bruneau Dunes, is located in Idaho.

The famous American novelist Ernest Hemingway committed suicide in Ketchum, Idaho. Ketchum is 1.6 miles (2.5 km) from Sun Valley, where many national and international celebrities visit for skiing and ice skating.

The first TV broadcast in the state of Idaho was in 1953, from the state capitol building in Boise. This was 20 years after the first television broadcast in the United States.

The first hydroelectric dam in the United States was built in 1895 on the Snake River in Idaho.

The Idaho state motto is “Esto Perpetua,” which means “Let it be perpetual.”

Soda Springs, Idaho is home to the world’s only captive geyser that erupts on a schedule – the Fountain of Youth Geyser in Soda Springs.

The city of Pocatello, Idaho has the largest flag made entirely out of jellybeans.

Idaho is the only state to have a state seal that was designed by a woman.

The world’s first nuclear power plant to generate electricity for a public power grid was located in Arco, Idaho.

The world’s only year-round outdoor ice skating rink is in Sun Valley, Idaho.

Idaho has the largest elk population in the country, with over 100,000 elk.

The state’s first penitentiary, built in 1872, is now a historical site and museum in Boise, Idaho.

The world’s largest lava lamp, standing at over 6 feet tall, is located in the city of Enaville, Idaho.

The state’s official vegetable is the potato.

The world’s largest potato chip, measuring 25 inches by 14 inches (63cm x 35cm), was produced by the Pringles Company in Jackson, Idaho in 1991.

Idaho’s state song is “Here We Have Idaho.”

Idaho is the only state to have a state insect, the monarch butterfly, that is not native to North America.

The city of Moscow, Idaho has a street called “Sweet Avenue” where all of the street signs are made of chocolate.

The city of Twin Falls, Idaho is home to the famous Shoshone Falls, which is taller than Niagara Falls.

Idaho has over 3,000 miles (4,828 km) of groomed snowmobile trails.

Idaho has more hot springs than any other state in the country, with over 130 known hot springs.

Idaho is known as the “Gem State” because it has over 72 different types of precious and semi-precious stones that can be found within its borders.

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Refrigerators

The first refrigerator was invented in 1805 by Oliver Evans, but it wasn’t until the early 1900s that they became widely available.

Before refrigerators many people had cabinets called “iceboxes” that held big blocks of slowly melting ice to keep food cold. Ice was delivered to homes by horse drawn wagons, and eventually with delivery trucks. Ice blocks were often cut from ponds in the winter, and stored in large buildings under layers of hay to last through the summer and fall.

The first “frost-free” refrigerator was introduced in 1954 by Frigidaire. Before that, all the food had to be removed every few weeks and the refrigerator turned off for an hour or two to melt ice that formed on the freezer section’s inner walls.

The word “refrigerator” comes from the Latin word “refrigero,” which means “I cool again.”

The first refrigerator to be mass-produced was the General Electric “Monitor-Top” in 1927.

The world’s largest refrigerator is located in a warehouse in California and is over 7 stories tall.

The first refrigerators used toxic gases like ammonia and sulfur dioxide as refrigerants.

Refrigerators are also used to store non-food items, such as medicines and flowers.

Some refrigerators have a “holiday mode” that can save energy when you’re away from home.

The world’s first “smart” refrigerator was introduced in 2000 by LG Electronics and had a built-in internet connection.

In the 1930s, refrigerators were often used to store beer during Prohibition.

The average lifespan of a refrigerator is about 14 years.

The world’s first refrigerator train car was built in 1867 to transport meat and other perishable items long distances.

Some refrigerators have a “chill zone” drawer that can keep food at a slightly lower temperature than the rest of the fridge.

The first refrigerators were often coated in porcelain enamel to make them easier to clean.

Some modern refrigerators have built-in touch screens that can display recipes, calendars, and even play music.

The first refrigerators to have built-in freezers were introduced in the 1940s.

In the 1930s, the Kelvinator company introduced a refrigerator that had a built-in radio.

Some refrigerators have a “door-in-door” design that allows you to access frequently used items without opening the entire fridge.

The first refrigerators were often powered by kerosene, gas, or even electricity generated by hand-cranked generators.

Most refrigerators use a compressor to squeeze then release gas through a narrow tube called a Venturi. As the gas escapes on the far side of the Venturi it expands. The heat it carries is spread out, which creates coolness.

Another way to move the gas through the Venturi is with heat. So, with this system, called ‘absorption cycle’ you need heat to create cold. Many recreational vehicles use absorption cycle refrigerators because they can be powered for days or weeks by propane rather than just hours before draining 12-volt batteries. Since absorption-cycle refrigerators don’t have a compressor, they can be very quiet.

Some refrigerators have a “soft freeze” function that keeps food at a slightly warmer temperature than a normal freezer.

The first commercially successful refrigerator was the Domelre, invented in France in the 1860s.

Some refrigerators have a “quick cool” function that can rapidly cool down food and drinks.

In the early 1900s, some refrigerators had built-in ice cream makers.

Some refrigerators have a “smart diagnosis” function that can help diagnose problems and provide troubleshooting tips.

The first refrigerators to use Freon as a refrigerant were introduced in the 1920s. Freon is a gas that destroys ozone in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. Enough Freon was used to make refrigerators and air conditioners that scientists were afraid that the earth’s weather would shift.